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at first sight far removed from that of Froebel; and yet though
the pantheistic sense of God in all things and the consequent
symbolism which runs through all Froebel's thought about
education are lacking, there is an underlying community of spirit
in the consciousness of far-reaching moral values attaching
to handicraft. The claims made on behalf of sloyd in this respect
may be rather exaggerated; but it is right in principle and in
accordance with the Froebelian philosophy of education to insist,
as Herr Salomon did, that educational handwork must not only
prepare for work, but for the larger life of man.


While most European educators in the latter half of the Nine-
teenth Century were harking back to Herbart and Froebel, new
forces in educational thought were gradually manifesting them-
selves in the great republic across the Atlantic. At first, indeed,
American educators also took the line of least resistence, and
were content to follow Pestalozzi or one of his successors, even
more uncritically than their European contemporaries. But the
time inevitably came when mere discipleship was no longer
satisfactory. The American people, looking forward to a great
political and industrial future, and faced with the difficulty of
making good citizens out of their heterogeneous population, were
too keenly alive to the necessity for getting the best possible
education for the citizens of the future to go on indefinitely in
the old traditions. Without neglecting the lessons from European
experience, the best of their educational leaders began to blaze
out new paths for themselves. The starting-point was found in
the familiar idea which all educators since Rousseau have accepted
as fundamental: that the teacher can only do his work to good
purpose on the basis of a sound knowledge of child nature, and
must therefore study the child. But there were new factors in
the old problem. For one thing, the doctrine of .evolution as re-
created by Darwin had thrown fresh light on racial and individual
development, and given promise of new views of childhood and
youth. Further, the advance of scientific method in the earlier
part of the century had made it necessary that child study should
henceforth have something of the exactness of the physical